Kindergarten to 5th Grade
How are storms different between the Northern and Southern hemisphere?
Storms in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are different due to the Earth spinning on its orbital axis and the opposing orientation of the Coriolis Effect. The Coriolis Effect is the natural phenomenon which influences the natural curvature of larger-scale atmospheric flow over a longer time frame (i.e., for weather systems which exist for at least 3 days or more) due to the tilt of the Earth’s orbital axis as it revolves in the annual orbit around the Earth’s Sun. In the Northern Hemisphere, a low-pressure system spins in a counter-clockwise direction (cyclonic flow) and a high-pressure system spins in a clockwise direction (anti-cyclonic flow). However, in the Southern Hemisphere, a low-pressure system spins in a clockwise or cyclonic direction and a high-pressure system spins in a counter-clockwise or anti-cyclonic direction.
Credit: PBS NOVA
How does a rainbow form?
A rainbow forms by way of light changing the direction in which it is moving as it passes through raindrops which are falling through a given column of air or by way of light changing its direction as it passes through ambient moisture (i.e., leftover moisture from recent rainfall which is just left suspended in a relatively large region for some period). The sunlight hits the raindrop and basically bounces off the raindrop’s surface. The sunlight is then broken up into seven different colors (i.e., the seven colors which make up the typical color spectrum) because of the reflected light travelling along a set path and maintains the difference of the reflected angle which causes the rainbow which is observed in such situations. A rainbow is a bunch of raindrops in the atmosphere that act like a prism and divide the light into roughly 7 colors.
What is a station plot and how is it used?
What are the different seasons? How are they different from the Northern and Southern Hemisphere?
"Figure 6h-2: Position of the equinoxes, solstices, aphelion, and perihelion relative to the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The equinoxes and solstices should be 90º apart in the ecliptic plane." PhysicalGeography.net
"Figure 6h-3: The Earth’s rotational axis is tilted 23.5° from the red line drawn perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. This tilt remains the same anywhere along the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Seasons are appropriate only for the Northern Hemisphere." PhysicalGeography.net
"Figure 6h-4: Annual change in the position of the Earth in its revolution around the Sun. In this graphic, we are viewing the Earth from a position in space that is above the North Pole (yellow dot) at the summer solstice, the winter solstice, and the two equinoxes. Note how the position of the North Pole on the Earth's surface does not change. However, its position relative to the Sun does change and this shift is responsible for the seasons. The red circle on each of the Earths represents the Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees N). During the June solstice, the area above the Arctic Circle is experiencing 24 hours of daylight because the North Pole is tilted 23.5 degrees toward the Sun. The Arctic Circle experiences 24 hours of night when the North Pole is tilted 23.5 degrees away from the Sun in the December solstice. During the two equinoxes, the circle of illumination cuts through the polar axis and all locations on the Earth experience 12 hours of day and night. Seasons are appropriate only for the Northern Hemisphere." PhysicalGeography.net