Rainy scenes like the one above were prevalent during the summer of 2017. Overlooking the Juneau Harbor in August 2017.
Scenes like the one above became familiar sights across Juneau, Alaska this past summer with local headlines reading “June Finishing Half an Inch above Average” and “July’s Weather was a Busted Summer”. August 2017 finished as the 12th wettest on record and rained for 18 consecutive days. Meanwhile, Seattle went 55 consecutive days without rainfall, beating a previous record set in 1951. While it is not unusual for the Pacific Northwest to be “drier” during the summer, August 2017 was the 2nd warmest on record with 17 days reaching 80 degrees or above.
Volcanoes are thought to contribute to long-term global warming and short-term global cooling. Bogoslof Volcano, a small stratovolcano nestled in the Aleutian Islands, had been in the midst of an active eruption pattern since December 2016, erupting on average once or twice a week. Output from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, shows some cooling due to volcanic aerosols in some regions (specifically the north-central United States, tropical oceans, and over China). Precipitation is likely to be reduced, as cooler sea surface temperatures decrease evaporation into the atmosphere and, therefore, decrease global precipitation. Juneau experienced below normal temperatures and above normal precipitation for June and July, while August was warm and wet. Ketchikan experienced a similar pattern, but this is not a pattern expected of high-latitude volcanic activity.
Beginning in spring 2013, toxic algae blooms spread, fin whales appeared for the first time near Kodiak Island, and massive numbers of sea otters were dying along the shore. A patch of warm water had developed in the Gulf of Alaska, infamously named “the blob”. Just as blowing on hot coffee cools the surface, westerlies along North America’s West Coast had weakened enough to stop churning the sea surface and cool it. A stubborn high-pressure system known as the “Ridiculously Resilient Ridge” (RRR) was keeping storms at bay along the Washington/Oregon coast and diverting precipitation towards Alaska. But, does the “blob” cause the RRR or does the RRR cause the blob? No one really knows for sure, but it is likely that this type of pattern is attributed to normal fluctuations in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Generally, this type of pattern is not abnormal for Alaska during the summer, however, the persistence is certainly anomalous.
Will this summer be similar? Winter 2017-2018 was considered a borderline, moderate La Niña event, after following ENSO neutral conditions from January 2017 onward. PDO remained strongly positive (warm phase) through June 2017, then declining towards more neutral conditions. In general, cold ENSO-neutral and La Niña events typically trend towards warmer and drier conditions, although week-to-week patterns will be highly variable.
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©2018 Meteorologist Sharon Sullivan
DISCUSSION: There is no question that as the Earth’s climate continues to gradually warm, the average temperatures associated with seasonal and intra-seasonal trends are most definitely in the midst of an upward trend. However, the primary issue which the majority of the general public tends to complain about is the gradual increases being observed in association with regional dew point temperatures. It is first worth noting that the dew point temperature is best defined as the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water in a given situation.
More specifically, once a given air parcel has reached the dew-point temperature at a particular air pressure, the water vapor in the air is considered to be at a state of equilibrium with liquid water, meaning water vapor is condensing at the same rate at which liquid water is evaporating. Therefore, it is at this point that you will start to observe small droplets of water beginning to condense on the surfaces of various objects which are being exposed to the nearby ambient environment. In addition, with higher dew points, there is a higher capacity for the atmosphere to contain greater average quantities of atmospheric water vapor and consequently have a higher potential for increased Summer-time thunderstorm potential. Also, bear in mind that with higher dew points, strong to severe thunderstorms would consequently have a greater potential for generating greater average rainfall totals both over shorter and longer-term periods.
Having said that, it is important to note that rising dew point temperatures have a consequence on people’s general way of life based on the fact that higher dew points lead to situations with people not being able to cool as easily due to natural water and perspiration not evaporating as effectively from the surface of their skin. Hence, as the threat for even further increasing average Summer and intra-seasonal dew point temperature continues, there is no doubt that this will continue to have a major impact on mankind as we continue to move further into the 21st century. So, as you can see, higher dew points can have major impacts on both convective storm issues as well as human health-related impacts due to greater dew points also creating issues for people contending with chronic conditions including (but certainly not limited to) asthma.
To learn more about this particular story, click on the following link courtesy of the Climate Central Twitter team!
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© 2018 Meteorologist Jordan Rabinowitz
DISCUSSION: Considering the threat of a continually gradually warming planet, many parts of the Earth are going to encounter increasingly greater concerns surrounding the threat of a gradually increasing average rainfall intensity potential. What does this mean for an average forecast on an average day? Not exactly what you may be thinking when you first hear this. To be more specific, average rainfall intensity changes are often characterized over the course of 20 to 30 years or more whereas a given rainfall forecast is typically projected over a period approximately around 24 to 48 hours in most of the more commonplace cases. Hence, when projections are made for longer-term rainfall trends this is often analyzed and projected for much longer duration numbers that is the case for daily forecasts. Hence, projected rainfall intensity percentages increases would not be able to be directly correlated to a given forecast on any given day during any given month of the year.
Therefore, it is imperative to understand the fact that the respective percentage changes for the precipitation intensity increases for the various U.S. state regions (as shown above) for the period between 1958 and 2016 are over a 50 + year period. Thus, one could never feasibly apply these numbers to the next 50 years either since the global average atmospheric water vapor concentration percentage differences will also continue to change as well. So, in looking to the future (i.e., both including and beyond the scope of the additional rainfall intensity graphical projections attached later in the above article courtesy of the Climate Central Twitter team), there is no debate that average rainfall intensity and average frequency of heavier rainfall events across many towns and cities across the contiguous United States will continue to gradually increase in many cases. The bottom line here is the fact that even though heavier rainfall intensity and frequency will both be increasing, nobody should immediately panic that this will inevitably every rainfall event of every week during each calendar month and from season-to-season for that matter.
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© 2018 Meteorologist Jordan Rabinowitz
DISCUSSION: Through considering the prospects of a gradually increasing net average global temperature both on a yearly and a seasonal basis, there are many global weather and oceanic concerns both for logistical and economical reasons. Among these concerns, is the major concern of there potentially being a substantially larger number of days which involve the occurrence of severe thunderstorms with the capability of producing some combination of dangerous lightning, winds, hail, and/or tornadoes. The reason for this concern is due to the fact that with a gradually warming planet, this facilitates a scenario wherein there can be a greater amount of average atmospheric water vapor content present in the lower to middle parts of the atmosphere.
Hence, when there is gradually increasing average atmospheric water vapor content suspended within the lower to middle parts of the atmosphere, this allows for smoother condensation of cloud masses associated with mesoscale (i.e., smaller-scale pulses of energy in the atmosphere which trigger more localized convective storm events) and/or synoptic-scale (i.e., typically larger-scale weather systems such as tropical or extra-tropical low-pressure systems which tend to have a life cycle of between 3 and 7 days). Thus, in such situations in the future, there would naturally be increased concerns for more efficient and easier development of convection in such situations which could lead to a greater propensity for a greater corresponding frequency of severe weather events during such scenarios. Therefore, as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Weather Service network always emphasizes to the general public, you must always be prepared for severe weather throughout the course of a given calendar year since you never know when severe weather will strike your area with limited notice even in the presence of a timely forecast days in advance.
It is also worth noting that although we have had a much below average tornado season here in the United States during the spring 2018 season, severe weather can strike across many places and during many times of the year without very much advanced notice, which can put a tremendous amount of stress on both energy companies, operational forecasters, and others to do their jobs to the best of their respective abilities. So, when in doubt, be sure to listen to scientific experts in their respective fields for professional insights regarding the level of concern which may needed for a given severe weather threat or seasonal projection thereof since it may end up saving you money or even life at some point.
For more information on this particular story which was published by both Stanford and Purdue Universities, feel free to click on the following link.
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© 2018 Meteorologist Jordan Rabinowitz
DISCUSSION: A teleconnection is a link between weather patterns and changes occurring in widely separated areas of the globe. You know of at least one but may be unaware that it is a teleconnection. Ever heard of El Niño? Anyway, this is a teleconnection. The full name is El Niño Southern Oscillation. First, the Southern Oscillation will be discussed. This is the pressure difference between eastern and western parts of the Pacific Ocean.
How does this effect the weather? Indirectly. Whether the pressure is higher or lower than normal in one area, it will change the direction of surface winds across the ocean. This causes warm or cool water to move, which in turn will affect the weather. The Southern Oscillation indicates El Niño, La Niña, or in some cases, La Nada.
El Niño, by definition, is an odd warming of surface ocean water temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific, off the coasts of Ecuador and northern Peru. It is called El Niño because this condition often occurs around Christmas. This can last for quite some time, for weeks, months, or over a year! Some of the effects of the El Niño are as follows. Convection, where water vapor rises and condenses to form clouds, increases over the eastern Pacific. The north to south temperature gradient over the eastern Pacific increases as well. In addition, there are fewer storms and mild temperatures across the north. Storm tracks tend to shift southward across the United States during El Niño. Finally, there is a reduced flow of air from the polar regions.
A La Niña is when sea surface temperatures are cooler than normal in the Pacific because of a strong increase in trade winds. Contrary to El Niño, La Niña causes an absence of convection of the eastern Pacific and sees it shift toward the western Pacific. The temperature gradient mentioned before also diminishes. One of the effects of La Niña has on the United States is that it increases the amount of cold air outbreaks in the North. However, there is variation in temperature and storm activity in the north while the south sees warmer and drier weather.
In conclusion, teleconnections can play a massive role in shaping local weather patterns.
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© 2018 Meteorologist Jennifer Naillon
DISCUSSION: Climate change is on track to wipe out almost half of all insect species by the end of the century, according to a recently released report.
The report analyzed the ramifications varying outcomes of climate change would have on 115,000 living species. Professor Rachel Warren of the University of East Anglia (UEA) led the report which found that plants and insects are heavily affected by climate change. Mammals and birds are also affected, but less severely given their ability to migrate more easily.
Warren noted that insects are the most sensitive group, meaning they are most vulnerable to widespread decimation if action is not taken in addition to what is already in place. The study found that even with current carbon emission cuts almost half of insect species will be gone by 2100. The loss of insects would be tragic to the ecosystem, especially with the projected loss of species like bees that pollinate many plants. “They are important because ecosystems cannot function without insects. They play an absolutely critical role in the food chain”, said Warren in an interview with The Guardian.
The analysis included data on the geographic ranges and current climates of 31,000 insect species, 8,000 birds, 1,000 amphibians, 1,700 mammals, 1,800 reptiles and 71,000 plants. The study looked at how the ranges of species would change when certain areas of the world couldn’t support certain species anymore. The study did this by providing calculations for the ambitious 1.5 degrees Celsius (1.5C) target set in the Paris Climate Agreement, the established 2C target, and 3.2C, which is the track the world is currently on should there be no further intervention to stop climate change.
The researchers looked at two variables in the end. They first found that as a result of climate change, 49% of insects would lose their ranges as a result of the 3.2C projection. This was trailed by the 2C threshold at an 18% loss and the 1.5C threshold at a 6% loss. Warren’s team also found that insects will lose on average 43% of their lands should the world warm 3.2C by the end of the century. When specific species are looked at, the team found that pollinating insects are particularly susceptible to losses due to climate change.
In 2017, researchers in Germany found that the country had lost three-fourths of flying insects in the past 25 years, prompting the team to conclude that this was happening globally. This prompted many scientists to warn of an “ecological Armageddon”. Professor Dave Goulson of the University of Sussex was not part of the study but does believe that the future of biodiversity on Planet Earth is nonexistent. “When we add in all the other adverse factors affecting wildlife, all likely to increase as the human population grows, the future for biodiversity on planet Earth looks bleak,” said Goulson.
Professor Guy Midgley of the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa also gave a grim outlook when referring to the loss of insect species. Midgley noted that this was the most comprehensive of studies on the loss of insects due to climate change projections, yet it still failed to cover the impact of lost interactions between species as ranges change and what effects extreme weather would have on the ecosystem. Due to this, Midgley assumed that the research in the study were underestimates, and the adverse effects would likely be greater.
Warren believes that most countries have been aware that this is an issue. “It is the when and how,” Warren said, “which will determine the future of the planet. The question is to what extent greater reductions can be made and on what timescale. That is a decision society has to make.” Already, a study published earlier this month found that one-third of the world’s protected lands, which account for 15% of all land spaces, have now been corrupted by intensive farming, grazing, and urbanization. Professor Kendall Jones, the University of Queensland professor that led the study, concluded that a well-run network of protected land areas is necessary to keep from annihilating species and ecosystems worldwide.
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©2018 Weather Forecaster Jacob Dolinger
DISCUSSION: It is very well-known and understood throughout the atmospheric science forecasting and research community that tropical cyclones chiefly rely upon a combination of low to moderate vertical wind shear along with warm sea surface temperatures as well as above-average to well above-average upper oceanic heat content to. Tropical cyclones need such a plethora of above-average oceanic heat content since this is the “fuel” which allows tropical cyclones to intensify and/or sustain a given intensity (assuming all other atmospheric parameters/factors remain favorable). Thus, with the prospects of a continued net warming of the Earth’s respective ocean basins, this continues to raise more substantial causes for concerns regarding future tropical cyclone frequency and intensity forecasting.
The reason for such large concerns regarding tropical cyclone frequency and intensity forecasting is chiefly connected to the fact that with a net average increase in the magnitude of upper oceanic heat content, this creates a scenario wherein tropical cyclones will have even more upper oceanic heat content energy to tap into during their lifetimes in many cases. This is a major cause for concern since ever since the Industrial Revolution, and increasingly larger percentage of people have flocked toward coastal regions and set up a permanent way of life in such regions. Thus, an increase in the average maximum potential intensity (MPI) of future tropical cyclones is an alarming precedent to contemplate since there are unimaginable logistical and economic vulnerabilities across coastal regions all over the world. Within the last two decades alone, the world has seen what tropical cyclones including (but certainly not limited to) Hurricane Katrina (2005), Hurricane Rita (2005), Hurricane Wilma (2005), Hurricane Ike (2008), Hurricane Sandy (2012), Hurricane Harvey (2017), Hurricane Irma (2017), and Hurricane Maria (2017) have done to coastal regions just across the United States and Puerto Rico.
Hence, considering the prospects of even further MPI increases is a downright scary thing to consider based on the recollection of just the collection of intense tropical cyclones which have slammed parts of the United States just within the past 20 years or so, as noted above. However, regardless of how future MPI changes with storms due to changing oceanic and atmospheric tendencies, it is important to make sure that you are always preparing for the next tropical cyclone threat well before it ever gets close to your hometown (if you live in an area which is prone to tropical cyclone impacts). Have a plan and a way to execute the plan well ahead of danger making itself known.
To learn more about this particular story and another directly related story, click on the following website links which are attached here: https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/05/10/610140149/record-heat-in-the-gulf-fueled-hurricane-harveys-deluge or www2.ucar.edu/atmosnews/news/132662/record-breaking-ocean-heat-fueled-hurricane-harvey?utm_source=AtmosNews&utm_campaign=3b06810369-AtmosNews&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_80502e816e-3b06810369-93154697.
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© 2018 Meteorologist Jordan Rabinowitz
Factors that inflict climatic changes part 3:
Part 2 here
DISCUSSION: When thinking about the global climate and factors that affect it, many people often ponder about the more frequently covered issues which include (but are certainly not limited to): greenhouse gases, deforestation and melting of glaciers. But the Earth also contains a more complicated conveyor belt of energy which affects the state of regional climate zones all over the world and this is the Earth’s oceans. Ocean currents play a crucial role in Earth’s climate, for example, either regulating the day-to-day weather of the western United States (and other parts of North America) as well as influencing many parts of northern Europe via the consistent transport of relatively warmer water emanating from the Gulf Stream and the western Caribbean Sea. It is important to acknowledge that approximately two-thirds of the Earth is covered by water, so there is no debate at this point in scientific research that the Earth’s oceans have a substantial impact and influence on the Earth’s global climate.
Ocean currents play a crucial role in the oceanic transfer of heat energy between the two hemispheres. More specifically, they play a crucial role in helping to facilitate an effective transport of the seasonal net surplus of tropical heat and moisture from the tropical regions of the world and towards the Polar, Arctic, and Antarctic regions. Differing ocean currents are chiefly driven by varying water densities, differentiating vertical oceanic heat profiles, and the complex interactions which occur between interacting zones of freshwater and salt water of varying concentrations. Ocean currents also play a key role in helping to regulate the global climate and help reinstate balance to the uneven distribution of energy that solar radiation has on regional sea surfaces. For example, even though the Earth typically receives approximately between 1.5 and 2.5% of the Sun’s net energy output, there is often a substantial differential between net uppermost oceanic heat content in looking between the tropics and the mid-latitudes. Thus, since the Earth always seeks a state of both oceanic and atmospheric equilibrium, the oceans help to redistribute the consistent imbalances through the progression of various global ocean currents which transport such regional surpluses of oceanic heat content to other cooler oceanic waters around the world.
As shown in the image above, the global oceanic system has a plethora of ocean currents which travel in various directions and possess the role of carrying both warmer and colder water depending on the given ocean current being referenced. An example of one such ocean current is the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation or AMOC. The AMOC is an ocean current which carries warm water from the Southern Hemisphere to Northern Europe. More specifically, warmer water is transported up from the Gulf Stream and into the North Atlantic Ocean before being returned towards the Central Atlantic Ocean. The water being transported to the central Atlantic is colder and denser, so it tends to sink and consequently allows warmer water to rise towards the upper layers of the ocean (a process which is scientifically referred to as upwelling). One of many primary concerns for the future with the prospects of a warming world, is the continued gradual net warming of the North Atlantic Ocean.
A pattern chiefly defined by continued gradual warming could potentially create a situation wherein water being transported to the Central Atlantic Ocean could become warmer (and consequently, somewhat less likely to sink in accordance with the overturning southward-directed deep ocean circulation). This could then result in a gradual decrease in the strength and/or magnitude of the AMOC at certain points which could lead to a compromise in the efficiency of the typical net heat transfer being accomplished between various parts of the world. In short, the continued warming of Earth’s oceans will likely trigger changes in the efficiency and magnitude of typical global heat and energy exchanges which are critical to maintain a state of global energy balance. Hence, it will be crucial to continue monitoring the state of the Earth’s oceans (and various currents therein) to see how they evolve as continued changes continued to be applied to coupled atmosphere-ocean system and what threat(s) may be consequently imposed on Earth’s global climate system.
An occurrence that often happens with warming temperatures is the melting of freshwater reserves which can often pose a threat to Earth’s global ocean circulation system. The influx of freshwater from melting glaciers and land ice can have consequences and cause the upper-most layer of the ocean to become less dense. Although colder in Polar Regions, freshwater is less dense than salty ocean water. So, paradoxically, as the planet warms, and freshwater reserves melt, regions where warm water is circulated, would likely observe a decrease in sea surface temperatures due to the weakening of various ocean currents.
Referring to the AMOC, a recent study by the United States National Academy of Sciences showed that an uneven mixture of fresh and salt water along with warming ocean temperatures could decrease the transport of water by the AMOC between 5 and 48 percent. This seems like a wide range of variability, but it is based upon 19 experiments from five models of climate scenarios. With such an example of a projected decrease in global oceanic energy transport, numerous regions around the Earth could experience corresponding changes to their regional climate due to the lack of middle to upper oceanic water mixing which is why monitoring continued changes (and fluctuations therein) in our global oceanic circulations will remain that much more important as we move deeper into the 21st century.
To learn more about the story which inspired this article, click on the following link: https://phys.org/news/2016-03-variability-major-oceanic-currents-driven.html.
To also learn more about other interesting global climate topics/issues from around the world, be sure to click here!
© 2018 Weather Forecaster Alec Kownacki and Meteorologist Jordan Rabinowitz
DISCUSSION: Coral bleaching occurs when coral becomes unhealthy and white due to environmental conditions that are not suited for algae (zooxanthellae) to remain in the tissues of coral. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), coral and algae depend on each other to live. Algae leave coral when coral becomes stressed, causing the coral to become even more stressed and vulnerable to disease. When all the algae are gone, the corals become “bleached”. Coral bleaching is caused by warming temperatures of the ocean, pollution, overexposure to sunlight, low tides, and sometimes even water temperatures that are too cold.
When coral turns completely white, this does not mean it is dead. Corals get their color from the algae that live in their tissues. The Nature Conservancy states that algae provide food to the corals through the carbohydrates they produce during photosynthesis. After the algae are gone, there is no longer a food source for the coral. This is when the corals change their color to white. Corals can survive after being “bleached” if algae are reabsorbed before they die.
The Great Barrier Reef Foundation stated that the worst bleaching event was in 2016 in the Great Barrier Reef in the Coral Sea, on Australia’s northeastern coast. It was triggered by record breaking ocean temperatures which reflect evidence of global warming caused by climate change. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority is now back in the water surveying the survivorship and recovery rates of coral after the recent bleaching event. Some are afraid that the Great Barrier Reef is damaged beyond full recovery. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority believe this event reinforces the need for an international effort to remediate climate change. Also, as a nation, Australia should try to reduce pressures on the Great Barrier Reef.
Other reefs have been “bleached” due to temperature changes. NOAA found that the Caribbean lost half of its coral reefs from a bleaching event in 2005. This event was caused by the expansion of the warm waters southward from near the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. Cold water temperatures can also cause bleaching events. As any variation in temperature change is susceptible to bleaching. Cold water temperatures in the Florida Keys caused a coral bleaching event in January of 2010.
There are also negative effects coral bleaching events could have on humans. Nature International Journal of Science stated that Terry Hughes, who is a director of the coral-reef center at James Cook University in Australia, said: “if we fail to curb climate change, and global temperatures rise far above 2 degrees Celsius, we will lose the benefits they provide to hundreds of millions of people.” The Nature Conservancy said: “that although coral reefs make up less than 1% of the ocean’s ecosystems, they shelter 25% of marine species, protect shorelines, support fishing industries, provide tourist dollars, and could be home to the next big medical breakthrough.” The best thing we can do to prevent more coral bleaching is to live sustainably to reduce the high temperatures from climate change and to reduce ocean water pollution.
(Credit: NOAA, The Great Barrier Reef Foundation, The Nature Conservancy, Nature International Journal of Science)
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©2018 Weather Forecaster Brittany Connelly
What is Albedo and How Does it Affect Climate? (Credit: NOAA Climate, National Snow and Ice Data Center)
Factors that inflict climatic changes Part 2:
Part 1 here
DISCUSSION: Ever wonder why it is difficult to see when a fresh coat of snow blankets the ground as opposed to a dark colored highway? The reflectiveness of snow is much higher than the absorptive properties that dark colored surfaces possess. A name for this reflective behavior is albedo. Albedo plays a crucial role in the climate system for it explains why certain surfaces either absorb sunlight or reflect sunlight.
Albedo is more scientifically defined as the amount of solar radiation reflected from an object or surface. The reflection is usually presented as a percentage. Some hear about albedo happening in lower latitudes, but the majority of albedo news happens in higher latitudes where snow and ice coverage outweigh everywhere else. Albedo directly affects the climate of higher latitudes by the amount of solar radiation being absorbed or reflected. If more solar radiation is absorbed, then the overall climate will start to warm due to the heat being absorbed.
Albedo participates in something called a feedback loop. This feedback loop is the act of less ice reflecting less sunlight, resulting in continuous warming. This cyclical loop is a continual warming trend that results in the melting of ice and snow which will inevitably lower the albedo, thus warming the region. The melting of land ice due to lower albedo will result in darker ocean being exposed, further exploiting solar radiation by absorbing its heating capabilities. Of course, the heating of the ocean will result in the melting of land and sea ice. As noted above, this produces a cyclical loop of warming and melting.
The average global albedo is roughly around 30%. Meaning, 30% of incoming solar radiation is being reflected back out to the atmosphere. However, in the Arctic, with more prevalent areas of snow and ice, the albedo percentage increases to about 70%. In other words, 70% of incoming solar radiation being reflected back out due to the reflective behaviors of white snow and ice. This high albedo percentage helps keep the Arctic cool and reduces the melt period of glaciers, sea and land ice. In recent years, there has been a decrease in land and sea ice in the Arctic resulting in less reflective surfaces. This gives way for less reflective ocean water to take its place. The albedo percentage of ocean water is roughly around 6%. Roughly 94% of incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the oceans which then contributes to its warming.
Albedo plays a role on climate by directly contributing to either cooling or warming a given area depending on the percentage of albedo. In an age with a continual warming trend in the Arctic, much greater than anywhere else, it will be interesting to study and research further albedo statistical data and learn about its continual effect on climate.
To learn more about other interesting stories related to global climate issues, be sure to click on the following link: www.globalweatherclimatecenter.com/climate
©2018 Weather Forecaster Alec Kownacki